Paul Kallos Lecture
Mark M. Davis, PhD
Monday, 23 May
Mark M. Davis is the Director of the Stanford Institute for Immunology, Transplantation and Infection (ITI), the Avery Family Professor of Immunology, and a long time Howard Hughes Medical Institute Investigator. He received a B.A. from Johns Hopkins University and a Ph.D. from the California Institute of Technology. He later was a postdoctoral fellow at the Laboratory of Immunology at NIH before joining the Stanford faculty. He is well known for identifying many of the T-cell receptor genes, which govern specificity for T cells, and work characterizing their binding properties and behavior on cell surfaces, including the demonstration that T cells can detect and respond to even a single antigenic peptide-MHC complex. He and his colleagues also developed a novel way of labeling specific T lymphocytes (“peptide-MHC tetramers”), which is widely used in both clinical and basic immunology studies. His current research interests focus on human immunology, specifically a “systems level” understanding of an immune response to vaccination, infection and autoimmunity, as well as methods to better understand human T cell responses. He has received many honors and awards, including the Gairdner Award, the Paul Ehrlich Award and the King Faisal Prize, among others. He is also a member of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Medicine, and the Royal Society.
Monday, 23 May
Timothy Caulfield is a Canada Research Chair in Health Law and Policy, a Professor in the Faculty of Law and the School of Public Health, and Research Director of the Health Law Institute at the University of Alberta. His interdisciplinary research on topics like stem cells, genetics, research ethics, the public representations of science and health policy issues has allowed him to publish over 350 academic articles. He has won numerous academic and writing awards and is a Fellow of the Royal Society of Canada and the Canadian Academy of Health Sciences. He contributes frequently for the popular press and is the author of two national bestsellers: The Cure for Everything: Untangling the Twisted Messages about Health, Fitness and Happiness (Penguin 2012) and Is Gwyneth Paltrow Wrong About Everything?: When Celebrity Culture and Science Clash (Penguin 2015). His most recent book is The Vaccination Picture (Penguin, 2017). Caulfield is also the host and co-producer of the award winning documentary TV show, A User’s Guide to Cheating Death, which has been shown in over 60 countries and is currently streaming on Netflix.
Ishizaka Memorial Lecture
Donald W. MacGlashan, Jr., M.D., Ph.D.
Tuesday, 24 May
My educational training began with dual degrees in Chemistry and Biology at California Institute of Technology followed by an M.D. and Ph.D. at Johns Hopkins University. My background in chemistry resulted in an interest in biophysics. With this background I was studying molecular assembly –self-aggregation—and this led me to studies of antibody-antigen aggregation reactions as applied to stimulation of mast cells and basophils. Dr. Lawrence Lichtenstein was my mentor for both my Ph.D. and post-doctoral training at Johns Hopkins where I developed a research program to study IgE-mediated activation of basophils and mast cells. What began as an interest in aggregation reactions quickly led to studies of signaling in these cells with a specific interest in how the cells turn themselves off after stimulation. In the early years, I developed methods to purify human basophils and mast cells in order to study signaling. These methods have mutated over the decades but still provide the means to study these rare cells. Along the way, my research has focused on different aspects of the biology of these cells. Early studies identified the released mediator profiles and these efforts led to the first studies to identify leukotriene release from mast cells and basophils followed by being first to demonstrate IL-4 secretion from basophils but not mast cells. In projects to find ways to blunt the activation of these cells I joined the development team at Tanox (and later Genentech) that produced the first therapeutic anti-IgE antibodies that eventually led to FDA approval of omalizumab. Because we had first shown that IgE up-regulated expression FceRI, in the context of a therapeutic reagent like omalizumab we could determine that it was this property of the IgE-FceRI system that allowed omalizumab to be therapeutically efficacious. With a larger team at Hopkins we developed projects that used omalizumab to explore the underlying biology of the human allergic response. Running in parallel with these projects was an evolving project to define signal transduction in these cells and combined with the omalizumab projects, we identified an unexpected modulation of SYK expression that is unique to human basophils during treatment with omalizumab. We also discovered the mechanisms of tachyphylaxis/desensitization in basophils and mast cells that are unique from animal models of these cells and which offer a possible therapeutic approach to turning off these cells. In 2016 I became the Director of the Division of Allergy and Clinical Immunology at Hopkins.
Carl Prausnitz Lecture
Raif Geha, MD
Wednesday 25 May
Medical School and the Chief of the Division of Immunology, Allergy, Rheumatology and Dermatology Division at Boston Children’s Hospital. He received his M.D. degree in 1969 from the American University of Beirut, Lebanon, and trained in Pediatrics and Immunology at Boston Children’s Hospital and Harvard Medical School. Dr. Geha’s research interests are in molecular and cellular mechanisms of primary immunodeficiencies and atopic dermatitis/food allergy. He has contributed to more than 475 original articles, 150 reviews, several monographs and a book. His publications have appeared in Cell, Immunity, Nature, Nature Genetics, Molecular Cell, PNAS, Journal of Experimental Medicine, Journal of Immunology, Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Journal of Clinical Investigation, and Science Immunology. Information about Dr. Geha’s current research can be found on https://www.gehalab.org.
Dr. Geha has received the E. Mead Johnson Award for Pediatric Research, considered the highest award for pediatric research, the Kuwait Foundation for the Advancement of Sciences Prize, and the American Association of Immunologists Prize in Human Immunology Research. He has served on a number of NIH study sections and on the NIAID council, has been a director of the American Board of Allergy and Immunology, was elected to the American Society of Clinical Investigation and the American Association of Physicians, has presided over the Clinical Immunology Society and chaired the WHO/IUIS Committee on Immunodeficiency. Dr. Geha has trained more than 150 postdoctoral fellows, many of whom are leaders in the fields of Allergy and Immunology.